Categories: Healthcare Education

Guidelines for Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that are spherical in shape and characterized by crown-like spikes on the surface under an electron
microscope, hence the name.

Coronaviruses can infect animals, including bats, pigs, cattle, turkeys, cats, dogs, and ferrets. Certain coronavirus strains are also transmissible to humans and cause illnesses. Thus, coronaviruses can cause zoonotic diseases. Detailed investigations found that Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) was transmitted from animals to humans through contact with infected civet cats or bats; and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) to humans through contact with dromedary camels or drinking camel milk.

In humans, symptoms common to respiratory ailments including stuffy nose, runny nose, cough, and fever. The clinical expression of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 is more serious than those of other strains of coronavirus. In some cases, more serious conditions can follow, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.

Since 2020, COVID-19cases have been reported in Chinese provinces and cities outside Wuhan, Hubei province of China, including Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Guangdong. Cases also have been confirmed in other countries and regions such as Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Thailand, South Korea, and the United States. Most of the patients had been to Wuhan or Hubei Province. More patients were diagnosed with COVID- 19 in Taiwan from January 21, and the patients had either history of travel or close contact with confirmed cases. Even though sporadic cases contracted the novel coronavirus in the community were reported, based on the current record, the risk of community-acquired infection is very low for the public.

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